Install Arch Linux as VirtualBox Guest OS

When I was an intern at Sandia National Laboratories I was introduced to the concept of using virtual machines to sandbox my projects. I have found this to be very helpful for many software experiments and development environments. I even use virtual machines to run my day-to-day Linux install. Here I give my notes on how to use Virtual Box to run an Arch Linux guest install on Mac OS X. Once a base install is complete it’s easy to make snapshots and spin up and destroy clones from the base install as needed.

Create New Virtual Machine

  • Download Arch Linux ISO Live CD

  • Create VirtualBox Disk Image (VDI) with desired settings.

  • Load the Arch Linux ISO as a CD/DVD image and select the “Boot Arch” option when the live CD boots.

Partition the drive(s)

# gdisk /dev/sda

Name Cmd # Start Stop Code Type
Boot n 1 0 +250M 8300 (Linux Filesystem)
Swap n 2 0 +2G 8200 (Linux Swap)
Root n 3 0 -0M 8300 (Linux Filesystem)
  • Use the n command and values (above) to create partitions using gdisk.
  • Print the the gdisk partition table with the p command.
  • Write the gdisk partition table with the w command.

Install and Configure System

# Format Partitions
mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda1
mkswap /dev/sda2
mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda3


# Mount Partitions
mount /dev/sda3 /mnt

mkdir /mnt/boot
mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/boot

swapon /dev/sda2


# Configure Mirrors


# Install Base System
pacstrap /mnt base base-devel linux


# Generate File System Table
genfstab -p /mnt >> /mnt/etc/fstab


# Set hostname
echo 'myarch' > /etc/hostname


# Change Root Directory
arch-chroot /mnt


# Configure language
echo LANG="en_US.UTF-8" >> /etc/locale.conf
echo LC_COLLATE="C" >> /etc/locale.conf
echo LC_TIME="en_US.UTF-8" >> /etc/locale.conf
echo "en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8" >>/etc/locale.gen

locale-gen

ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/America/New_York /etc/localtime
hwclock --systohc --utc


# Generate Ram Disk
mkinitcpio -p linux


# Install and Configure Bootloader
pacman -S syslinux gdisk
syslinux-install_update -iam


# Exit CHROOT, Unmount Drives and Reboot
exit
umount -R /mnt
reboot

Post Install

The following isn’t really intended to be executed as a script.

# Setup Network
systemctl start dhcpcd
systemctl enable dhcpcd

# Virtual Box Guest Utilities
# https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/VirtualBox#Arch_Linux_as_a_guest_in_a_Virtual_Machine
pacman -S virtualbox-guest-utils --noconfirm

modprobe -a vboxguest vboxsf vboxvideo

echo vboxguest >> /etc/modules-load.d/virtualbox.conf
echo vboxsf >> /etc/modules-load.d/virtualbox.conf
echo vboxvideo >> /etc/modules-load.d/virtualbox.conf

groupadd vboxsf

systemctl enable vboxservice
systemctl start vboxservice

# X Windows System
pacman -S xorg-server xorg-server-utils xorg-xinit xterm ttf-dejavu --noconfirm

pacman -S awesome

# User Configuration
pacman -S sudo --noconfirm

# use visudo to add  under "User privilege specification" before
# using sudo as 

# Replace user_name with desired user name.
useradd -m -g users -G optical,power,storage,vboxsf -s /bin/bash user_name

chown root.vboxsf /media

# Set  password using "# passwd "
# Set root password using "# passwd"


# Update Packages and System
pacman -Syy
pacman -Syu

Per User Config

Configuration for users other than root.

echo /usr/bin/VBoxClient-all >> ~/.xinitrc
echo "exec awesome" >> ~/.xinitrc

ln -s /media/sf_share_name/* ~/share_name

Mounting a USB thumb drive in Linux

At one point I was trying to install linux wireless drivers and since I didn’t have access to an ethernet connection I decided to transfer my driver to the computer in question via a USB thumb drive. But what do you need to do after plugging in the USB disk drive to the Linux machine in order to access the data?

Before connecting your USB device, execute the list block devices “lsblk -f” command. Then, connect your USB storage device and execute an “lsblk -f” command again. Notice anything different?

In my case I observed a new block device filesystem named “sdb1” and its own UUID. Using the UUID, one can mount the USB device by executing “mkdir /mnt/usbdrive && mount -U YOUR_USB_DEVICE_UUID /mnt/usbdrive” as root. Take care when typing these commands, unlike most Windows/Microsoft systems I have used, *nix systems are case sensitive.

When you are finished with the device, you may “un-mount” it by executing “unmount /mnt/usbdrive” as root.

That was easy!